James H. Stein, M.D.
Director, UW AIRP
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James H. Stein, MD is the Robert Turell Professor of Cardiovascular Research in the Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health in Madison, Wisconsin. He is Director of the Preventive Cardiology Program, Director of the Vascular Health Screening Program, and Associate Director of Adult Echocardiography at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. Dr. Stein also is the Director of the University of Wisconsin Atherosclerosis Imaging Research Program.
Dr. Stein received his baccalaureate degree with honors from the University of Wisconsin. He received his Doctor of Medicine (cum laude) degree from the Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut. His Internship and Residency in Internal Medicine were at the University of Chicago Medical Center in Illinois. He completed a Cardiology Fellowship at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois.
Dr. Stein was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha in medical school. He has received several awards for excellence in teaching from the medical students and residents at the University of Chicago Medical Center and University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. He received the American College of Cardiology W. Proctor Harvey Young Teacher Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2001. Dr. Stein has been named one of Madison's "Top Docs" in Cardiology by Madison Magazine since 2000. In 2007, he was named one of the 20 best cardiologists in America by Men's Health Magazine. In 2008, he was named one of the 20 best cardiologists in America by Women's Health Magazine. In 2013 he received the UW Hospital and Clinics Presidential Physician Leadership Award.
He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine in Internal Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Echocardiography in Comprehensive Adult Echocardiography and a Fellow of the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the National Lipid Association, and the Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging and Prevention.
Dr. Stein was Co-Chairman of the 2006 American College of Cardiology Annual Scientific Sessions and was a member of the American College of Cardiology Clinical Expert and Consensus Documents Task Force.
Dr. Stein was a Guest Expert and Participant in the American College of Cardiology 34th Bethesda Conference: “Can Atherosclerosis Imaging Improve the Detection of Patients at Risk for Ischemic Heart Disease?” and was a co-author of the American Society of Echocardiography Recommendations for Use of Echocardiography in Clinical Trials. He recently was Chairman of the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid IMT Writing Group and their Consensus Statement on "Use of Carotid Ultrasound to Identify Subclinical Vascular Disease and Evaluate Cardiovascular Disease Risk."
Dr. Stein is Director of the UW AIRP. His research interests include ultrasound assessment of atherosclerosis, endothelial function, and clinical trials in preventive cardiology. Specific interests include the detection and characterization of subclinical atherosclerosis using CIMT and BART in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tobacco use, and sleep-disordered breathing, and the use of CIMT measurements for determination of "vascular age" and cardiovascular risk prediction. Dr. Stein has directed the core brachial artery ultrasound laboratory for several single and multicenter trials studying the effects of antiretroviral therapy, smoking cessation interventions, statins, estrogen replacement therapy, and nutritional supplements on endothelial function.
- Stein JH, Keevil JG, Wiebe DA, Aeschlimann S, Folts JD. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 1999; 100:1050-1055.
- Stein JH, Klein MA, Bellehumeur JL, Aeschlimann SE, McBride PE, Sosman JM. Use of human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease inhibitors is associated with atherogenic lipoprotein changes and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 2001; 104:257-262.
- Chou EJ, Keevil JG, Aeschlimann SE, Wiebe DA, Folts JD, Stein JH. Effect of ingestion of purple grape juice on endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 2001; 88:553-555.
- Stein JH, Carlsson CM, Papcke-Benson K, Aeschlimann SE, Bodemer A, Carnes ML, McBride PE. The effects of lipid-lowering and antioxidant vitamin therapies on endothelial function in older adults with hypercholesterolemia. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2001; 38:1806-1813.
- Chuang ML, Douglas PS, Bisinov EA, Stein JH. Effect of cardiac cycle on ultrasound assessment of endothelial function. Vascular Medicine 2002; 7:103-108.
- Stein JH, Merwood MA, Bellehumeur JL, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Underbakke GL, Mays ME, Sosman JM. The effects of pravastatin on atherogenic lipoproteins and endothelial function in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. American Heart Journal 2004; 147:e18:1-7.
- Stein JH. Carotid intima-media thickness and vascular age: You are only as old as your arteries look. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2004; 17:686-689.
- Korcarz CE, Stein JH. Transthoracic assessment of coronary flow reserve: Technical considerations. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2004; 17:704-707.
- Stein JH, Fraizer MC, Aeschlimann SE, Nelson-Worel J, McBride PE, Douglas PS. Vascular age: Integrating carotid intima-media thickness measurements with global coronary risk assessment. Clinical Cardiology 2004; 27:388-392.
- Carlsson CM, Pharo LM, Aeschlimann SE, Mitchell C, Underbakke G, Stein JH. Effects of multivitamins and low-dose folic acid supplements on plasma homocysteine levels and flow-mediated vasodilation in older adults. American Heart Journal 2004; 148:e11:1-8.
- Stein JH, Douglas PS, Srinivasan SR, Bond MG, Tang R, Li S, Chen W, Berenson GS. Distribution and cross-sectional age-related increases of carotid artery intima-media thickness in young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Stroke 2004; 12:2782-2787.
- Gottdiener JS, Bednarz J, Devereux RM, Gardin J, Klein A, Manning W, Morehead A, Kitzman D, Oh J, Quinones M, Schiller NB, Stein JH, Weismann N. American Society of Echocardiography recommendations for use of echocardiography in clinical trials: A report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and The Task Force on Echocardiography in Clinical Trials Writing Committee. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2004; 17:1086-1119.
- Stein JH, Merwood MA, Bellehumeur JB, McBride PE, Wiebe DA, Sosman JM. Postprandial lipoprotein changes in patients taking antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2005; 25:399-405.
- Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Mays ME, Douglas PS, Palta M, Zhang H, LeCaire T, Paine D, Gustafson D, Fan L. A semi-automated border detection program that facilitates clinical use of ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness measurements. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2005; 18:244-251.
- Tzou WS, Douglas PS, Srinivasan SR, Chen W, Berenson G, Stein JH. Advanced lipoprotein testing does not improve identification of subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005; 142:742-750.
- Tzou WS, Douglas PS, Srinivasan SR, Bond G, Tang R, Chen W, Berenson G, Stein JH. Increased subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults with metabolic syndrome: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2005; 46:457-463.
- Wyman RA, Fraizer MC, Keevil JG, Busse KL, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Stein JH. Ultrasound-detected carotid plaque as a screening tool for advanced subclinical atherosclerosis. American Heart Journal 2005; 150:1081-1085.
- Tzou WS, Korcarz CE, Mays ME, Aeschlimann SE, Stein JH. Skin cholesterol content identifies increased carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic adults. American Heart Journal 2005; 150:1135-1139.
- Gepner AG, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, LeCaire TJ, Palta M, Tzou WS, Stein JH. Validation of a carotid intima-media thickness border detection program for use in an office setting. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2006; 19:223-228.
- Wyman RA, Keevil JG, Busse KL, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Stein JH. Is the ankle-brachial index a useful screening test for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, middle-aged adults? Wisconsin Medical Journal 2006; 105:50-54.
- Gepner AD, Keevil JG, Wyman RA, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Busse KL, Stein JH. Use of carotid intima-media thickness and "vascular age" to modify cardiovascular risk prediction. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2006; 19:1170-1174.
- Tzou WS, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Stein JH. Use of handheld ultrasound by a non-sonographer clinician to measure carotid intima-media thickness. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2006; 19:1286-1292.
- Johnson HM, Douglas PS, Srinivasan SR, Bond MG, Tang R, Li S, Chen W, Berenson GS, Stein JH. Predictors of carotid intima-media thickness progression in young men and women: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Stroke 2007; 38:900-905.
- Keevil JG, Cullen MW, Gangnon R, McBride PE, Stein JH. Implications of the United States' Cardiac Risk and LDL Cholesterol Distributions for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dyslipidemia: Data from NHANES 1999 - 2002. Circulation 2007; 115:1363-1370.
- Tzou WS, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Morgan BJ, Skatrud JB, Stein JH. Coronary flow velocity changes in response to hypercapnia: Assessment by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2007; 20:421-426.
- Tzou WS, Douglas PS, Srinivasan SR, Bond MG, Tang R, Chen W, Berenson GS, Stein JH. Distribution and predictors of carotid artery intima-media thickness in young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Preventive Cardiology 2007; 10:181-189.
- Gepner AD, Wyman RA, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SA, Stein JH. An abbreviated carotid intima-media thickness scanning protocol to facilitate clinical screening for subclinical atherosclerosis. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2007; 20:1269-1275.
- Wyman RA, Gimelli G, McBride PE, Korcarz CE, Stein JH. Does detection of carotid plaque affect physician behavior or motivate patients? American Heart Journal 2007; 154:1072-1077.
- Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Hurst RT, Lonn E, Kendall CB, Mohler ER, Najjar S, Rembold CM, Post WS. Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: A consensus statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2008; 21:93-111.
- Korcarz CE, Hirsch AT, Bruce C, DeCara JM, Mohler ER, Pogue B, Postley J, Tzou WS, Stein JH. Carotid intima-media thickness testing by non-sonographer clinicians: The Office Practice Assessment of Carotid Atherosclerosis (OPACA) Study. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2008; 21:117-122.
- Torriani FJ, Komarow L, Parker RA, Cotter BR, Currier JS, Dubé MP, Fichtenbaum CJ, Gerschenson M, Mitchell CKC, Murphy RL, Squires K, Stein JH for the ACTG 5152s Team. Endothelial function in human immunodeficiency virus-infected antiretroviral-naive subjects before and after starting potent antiretroviral therapy: The ACTG (AIDS Clinical Trials Group) Study 5152s. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2008; 52:569-76.
- Rao AK, Djamali A, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Wolff MR, Stein JH. Left atrial volume is associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Echocardiography 2008; 25:264-269.
- Stein JH, Tzou WS, DeCara JM, Hirsch AT, Mohler III ER, Ouyang P, Pearce GL, Davidson MH. Increased skin cholesterol identifies individuals at increased cardiovascular risk: The Predictor of Advanced Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PASA) Study. American Journal of Cardiology 2008; 101:986-981.
- Rao AK, Djamali A, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Wolff MR, Stein JH. Mitral annular calcification is associated with reduced left ventricular function and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2008; 21:747-750.
- Korcarz CE, DeCara JM, Hirsch AT, Pogue B, Postley J, Tzou WS, Stein JH. Ultrasound detection of increased carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque in an office practice setting: Does it affect physician behavior or patient motivation? Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2008; 21:1156-1161.
- McBride PE, Einerson JA, Grant H, Sargent C, Underbakke G, Vitcenda M, Zeller L, Stein JH. Putting the Diabetes Prevention Program into practice: A program for weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction for patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Nutrition, Aging, and Health 2008; 12:745S-750S.
- Stein JH, Komarow L, Parker RA, Cotter BR, Currier JS, Dubé MP, Fichtenbaum CJ, Gerschenson M, Mitchell CKC, Murphy RL, Squires K, for the ACTG 5152s Team. Lipoprotein changes in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve individuals after starting antiretroviral therapy: ACTG Study A5152s. Journal of Clinical Lipidology 2008;2:464-471.
- McDermott MM, Ades P, Guralnik JM, Dyer A, Ferucci L, Liu K, Nelson M, Lloyd-Jones D, Van Horn L, Garside D, Kibbe M, Domanchuk K, Liao Y, Tao H, Green D, Pearce WH, Schenider JR, McPherson D, Tiukinhoy S, McCarthy WJ, Stein JH, Shroff A, Criqui MH. A randomized controlled trial of treadmill exercise and resistance training, respectively, in peripheral arterial disease participants with and without intermittent claudication. JAMA 2009;301:165-174.
- Payvandi L, Dyer A, McPherson D, Ades P, Stein JH, Liu K, Ferrucci L, Criqui MH, Guralnick JM, Lloyd-Jones D, Kibbe MR, Liang ST, Kane B, Pearce WH, Vertga M, McCarthy WJ, Schneider JR, Shroff A, McDermott MM. Physical activity during daily life and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in peripheral arterial disease. Vascular Medicine 2009;14:193-201.
- Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Post WS. Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: Summary and discussion of the American Society of Echocardiography Consensus Statement. Preventive Cardiology 2009; Winter: 34-38.
- Bautista LE, Stein JH, Morgan B, Stanton N, Young T, Nieto FJ. Blood and hair Hg associations with vascular reactivity and blood pressure. WMJ 2009; 108:250-252.
- Stein JH. Carotid ultrasound in children: A window to arterial aging. Heart 2009; 95:611-612.
- Murphy RL, Berzens B, Zala C, Fichtenbaum C, Dube MP, Guaraldi G, Torriani F, Belsey E, Mitchell C, Stein JH , for the SABAR Study Team. Change to atazanavir/ritonavir treatment improves lipids but not endothelial function in patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2010; 24:885-90.
- Chow D, Stein JH, Seto T, Mitchell C, Sriratanaviriyakul N, Grandinetti G, Gerschenson M, Shiramizu B, Souza S, Shikuma C. Short-term effects of extended release niacin on endothelial function in HIV infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2010; 24:1019-23.
- Stein JH, Johnson HM. Carotid intima-media thickness, plaques, and cardiovascular disease risk: Implications for preventive cardiology guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2010; 55:1608-1610.
- Johnson HM, Gossett L, Piper ME, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Fiore MC, Baker TB, Stein JH. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on endothelial function: One-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2010; 55:1988-95.
- Korcarz CE, Gepner AD, Peppard PE, Young TB, Stein JH. The effects of sleep-disordered breathing on arterial stiffness are modulated by age. Sleep 2010; 33:1081-1085.
- Johnson HM, Piper M, Jorenby D, Baker T, Fiore MC, Stein JH. Risk factors for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis among current smokers. Preventive Cardiology 2010; 13:166-171.
- Johnson HM, Stein JH. Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque detection for cardiovascular risk assessment. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 2011; 18:153-162.
- Johnson HM, Einerson J, Korcarz CE, Aeschlimann SE, Stein JH. Long-term effects of carotid screening on patient outcomes and behaviors. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011; 171:589-591.
- Johnson HM, Turke TL, Grossklaus M, Dall T, Carimi S, Koenig LM, Aeschlimann SE, Korcarz CE, Stein JH. Effects of an office-based carotid ultrasound screening intervention. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2011; 24:738-747.
- Asthana A, Piper ME, McBride PE, Ward A, Fiore MC, Baker TB, Stein JH. Long-term effects of smoking and smoking cessation on exercise stress testing: Three-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial. American Heart Journal 2012;163:81-87.
- Johnson HM, Piper M, Baker T, Fiore MC, Stein JH. Effects of Smoking and Cessation on Subclinical Arterial Disease: A Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e35332.
- Gepner AD, Ramamurthy R, Krueger DC, Korcarz CE, Binkley N, Stein JH. A prospective randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk. PLoS ONE 2012;7:e36617.
- Shikuma CM, Seto T, Liang CY, Bennett C, DeGruttola V, Gerschenson M, Stein JH, Budoff M, Hodis HN, Delaney JA, Ogata-Arakaki D, Pramyothin P, and Chow C. Vitamin D levels and markers of arterial dysfunction in HIV. AIDS Hum Res Retrovirus 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
- Carlsson CM, Xu G, Wen Z, Barnet JH, Blazel HM, Chappell RJ, Stein JH, Asthana S, Sager MA, Alsop DC , Rowley HA, Fain SB, Johnson SC. Effects of atorvastatin on cerebral blood flow in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease: A pilot study. Current Alzheimer's Research 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
- Kaufman J, Adar S, Allen R, Barr G, Budoff M, Burke G, Casillas A. Cohen M, Curl C, Daviglus M, Roux AD, Jacobs D, Kronmal R, Larson T, Liu SLJ, Lumley T, Navas-Acien A, O'Leary D, Rotter J, Sampson P, Sheppard L, Siscovick D, Stein JH, Szpiro A, Tracy R. Prospective study of particulate air pollution exposures, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiovascular disease. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution ( MESA Air). American Journal of Epidemiology 2012 Oct 4 [Epub ahead of print].
- Wharton W, Stein JH, Korcarz C, Sachs J, Olson SR, Zetterberg H, Dowling M, Ye S, Gleason CE, Underbakke G, Jacobson LE, Johnson SC, Sager Ma, Asthana S, Carlsson CM. The effects of ramipril in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's Disease: Results of a pilot clinical trial. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2012 Jul 9 [Epub ahead of print].
- Blodget E, Shen C, Aldrovandi G, Rollie A, Gupta SK, Stein JH, Dubé MP. Relationship between microbial translocation and endothelial function in HIV infected patients. PLoS ONE 2012;7(8):e42624.
- Stein JH, Brown T, Ribaudo H, Chen Y, Yan M, Lauer-Brodell E, McComsey G, Dubé M, Murphy RL, Hodis H, Currier J. Ultrasonographic measures of cardiovascular disease risk in a modern cohort of antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive individuals with HIV infection: Baseline results from ACTG study 5260s. AIDS 2012 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print].
- Gupta SK, Mi D, Dubé MP, Saha C, Johnson RM, Stein JH, Clauss MA, Mather KJ, Desta Z, Liu Z. Pentoxifylline, inflammation, and endothelial function in HIV-infected persons: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2013; 8:e60852. PMID: 23593327
- Gepner AD, Piper M, Leal MA, Baker TB, Fiore MC, Stein JH. Electrocardiographic changes associated with smoking and smoking cessation: Outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2013 April 23;8(4):e62311. PMID: 23626800
- Blondon M, Sachs M, Hoofnagle A, Ix JH, Michos ED, Korcarz C, Gepner AD, Siscovik DS, Kaufman JD, Stein JH, Kestenbaum B, de Boer IH. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone are not associated with carotid intima-media thickness or plaque in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2013 Nov;33(11):2639-45. 2013 Jun 27. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 23814117
- Hulgan T, Stein JH, Cotter BR, Murdock DG, Ritchie MD, Dube MP, Gerschenson M, Haas DW, and Torriani FJ. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and changes in adiponectin and endothelial function in HIV-infected adults after antiretroviral therapy initiation. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study A5152s and Dacs 252 Study Teams. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2013 Oct;29(10):1293-9. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2013.0079. 2013 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 23944767.
- Wohl D, Arnoczy G, Fichtenbaum C, Campbell T, Taiwo B, Hicks C, McComsey G, Koletar S, Sax P, Tebas P, Ha B, Massengale K, Walsh K, Stein JH. Comparison of cardiovascular disease risk markers in HIV-infected patients receiving abacavir and tenofovir: The Nucleoside Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Function (NICE) Study. Antiviral Therapy 2013 Aug 28 [Epub ahead of print]. DOI: 10.3851/IMP268. PMID: 23985706.
- Timmons T, Shen C, Aldrovandi G, Rollie A, Gupta SK, Stein JH, Dubé MP. Microbial translocation and metabolic and body composition measures in treated and untreated HIV infection. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2013 Oct 8. PMID: 24033288.
- Domanchuk K, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Criqui MH, Tian L, Liu K, Losordo D, Stein J, Green D, Kibbe M, Zhao L, Annex B, Perlman H, Lloyd-Jones D, Pearce W, Taylor D, McDermott MM. Progenitor cell release plus exercise to improve functional performance in peripheral artery disease: The PROPEL Study. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2014 (accepted for publication).
- Gepner AD, Korcarz CE, Colangelo LA, Hom E, Tattersall MC, Astor BC, Kaufman JD, Liu K, Stein JH. Longitudinal effects of a decade of aging on carotid artery stiffness: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Stroke 2014;45:48-53. PMID: 24253542.
- Gepner AD, Colangelo LA, Blondon M, Korcarz CE, de Boer IH, Kestenbaum B, Siscovik DS, Kaufman JD, Liu K, Stein JH. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels do not predict changes in carotid arterial stiffness: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2014;34(5):1102-1109. PMID: 24700125
- Korcarz CE, Stein JH, Peppard P, Barnet JH, Young TB, Nieto FJ. Combined effects of sleep-disordered breathing and Metabolic Syndrome on endothelial function: The Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study. Sleep 2014 (accepted for publication).
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December 22, 2014